Violence threats dating
The term "intimate relationships" is used here to be maximally inclusive of any romantic and/or sexual relationship between two non-biologically-related people, including dating or courtship relationships, relationships in which the romantic partners live together in the same household (cohabiting), relationships in which two people have children in common but are no longer formally romantically or sexually involved with one another, and marital relationships.Ideally such relationships are loving and supportive, protective of and safe for each member of the couple.Sexual abuse includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner.Emotional Abuse: Undermining an individual's sense of self-worth and/or self-esteem is abusive.Sexual and non-sexual physical abuse also co-occur in many abusive relationships (Browne, 1987; Mahoney & Williams, 1998; Walker, 1984), and, as with emotional abuse, sexual and non-sexual abuse often are combined elements of a single abusive incident (Bergen, 1996; Browne, 1987; Finkelhor & Yllo, 1985; Russell, 1990; Walker, 1984).As discussed by Tolman (1992), it may be somewhat artificial to separate emotional abuse from physical forms of abuse because physical forms of abuse also inflict emotional and psychological harm to victims, and both forms of abuse serve to establish dominance and control over another person.This can happen whether the relationship is ended by just one of the partners or, seemingly, by mutual consent.There are several types of abuse that occur in intimate romantic relationships.
Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person.
Behaviors regarded as psychologically and/or emotionally abusive include, but are not limited to: (These examples are based on items from various instruments used to measure emotional aggression in romantic and family dyads including those by Follingstad et al., 1990; Hudson & Mc Intosh, 1981; Marshall, 1992a, 1992b; Ni Carthy, 1982, 1986; Pan, Neidig, & O'Leary, 1994; Shepard & Campbell, 1992; Stets, 1991; Straus, 1979; Straus & Gelles, 1986; Straus, Hamby, Boney-Mc Coy & Sugarman, 1996; Tolman, 1989). This could be considered a subcategory of emotional abuse since it serves many of the same functions as emotional abuse and has some of the same emotional effects on victims.