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Sixteen subspecies have been described across the distribution range of the gray fox (Wilson and Reeder 2005).
Despite their widespread distribution remarkably little examination of their population genetics has been undertaken (but see Weston Glenn et al. The gray fox is 1 of only 2 extant members of the genus begins in the early Irvingtonian age (2 mya) with fossils found in Arkansas, Florida, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.
We estimated bootstrap values using a neighbor-joining search in PAUP.
For neighbor-joining trees we used our single gray fox from Arizona as an outgroup.
By the mid-18th century gray foxes had disappeared from the Northeast, possibly due to competition with the introduced red fox from Europe (Churcher 1959; but see Trapp and Halberg 1975).
We cleaned polymerase chain reaction products using Exo SAP (USB Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio) and sequenced products in both directions using the Big Dye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems Inc.) according to manufacturer's recommendations.
We purified reactions via centrifugation through Sephadex G-50 columns (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, New Jersey).
Molecular data have been used to show northward post-Pleistocene range expansions from a refugium in the southeastern United States for several mammal species.
Fossil and historical records indicate that gray foxes () were not present in the northeastern United States until well after the Pleistocene (ca. To test the hypothesis that gray foxes experienced a post-Pleistocene range expansion we conducted a phylogeographic analysis of gray foxes from across the eastern United States.
Map of the eastern United States showing sampling locations (black dots) for the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).